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Under the twin pressures of end-user mobility and applications migrating to the cloud, enterprise technology for secure remote access is undergoing an evolution beyond virtual private networks (VPNs) toward a new paradigm we are calling zero-trust access (ZTA). ZTA has different flavors, and Omdia divides vendors in this market into two broad camps, one adopting primarily a licensed software approach, the other a service-based one. After discussing the shortcomings of VPN technology for the cloud era, this report describes both technical approaches observed in the ZTA segment, profiles the leading vendors in each camp, and considers the relative merits of each approach. It is relevant for enterprises facing the twin challenges of a mobile workforce and a cloud-based application infrastructure as well as for technology vendors seeking to offer remote-access technology for the cloud era and service providers that want to offer added value over and above the connectivity “bit pipe.”